2013年05月22日

米国国務省、2012年度版国際宗教自由報告書

今月(2013年5月)になってから、アメリカ連邦政府の諮問委員会「国際宗教自由に関するアメリカ委員会」による「報告書」と、その報告書に基づく、ワシントン・ポストの報道を紹介した。以下、そのリンク:
★米政府諮問機関:「拉致監禁・強制改宗は甚だしい宗教の自由侵害問題」と認める
http://humanrightslink.seesaa.net/category/10127622-1.html

★日本の拉致監禁問題は憂慮すべき動向 - ワシントン・ポスト紙
http://humanrightslink.seesaa.net/article/359406367.html

2013年5月20日、今度は、アメリカ国務省 (U.S. Department of State) 民主・人権・労働局 (Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor) による、2012年度版「国際宗教自由報告書」が、ジョン・ケリー国務長官により、発表された。今回の記事は、その国務省の報告書の日本についての、その中でも、拉致監禁・強制改宗・大学の宗教迫害・統一教会についての部分を取り上げたい。

U.S. Department of State
Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor 
International Religious Freedom Report for 2012

米国務省 民主・人権・労働局
2012年度版国際宗教自由報告書
Japan 日本
http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/religiousfreedom/index.htm?year=2012&dlid=208234#wrapper
現時点では、報告書内の拉致監禁・強制改宗・大学の宗教迫害・統一教会に関する部分だけの日本語訳となっています。ちょっと下にスクロールして下さい。日本語訳 by Yoshi
Executive Summary

The constitution and other laws and policies protect religious freedom and, in practice, the government generally respected religious freedom. The trend in the government’s respect for religious freedom did not change significantly during the year.

There were few reports of societal abuse or discrimination based on religious affiliation, belief, or practice.

The U.S. government closely monitored the state of religious freedom, conducted outreach to minority religious groups and NGOs, and discussed religious freedom with the government

Section I. Religious Demography

The Statistics Bureau estimates the population to be 127.5 million as of October. Because the government does not require religious groups to report their membership, it is difficult to determine the number of members of different groups. A 2009 report by the Agency for Cultural Affairs (ACA) indicates that membership claims by religious groups totaled 207 million. This number, substantially more than the country’s population, reflects many citizens’ affiliation with multiple religions. For example, it is common to practice both Buddhist and Shinto rites.

According to the ACA’s 2009 statistics, 106 million persons identified themselves as Shinto, 90 million as Buddhist, and 2.1 million as Christian, while nine million followed “other” religions. The category of “other” includes Islam, the Bahai Faith, Hinduism, Judaism, or no religion. The government does not compile statistics on the number of Muslims in the country specifically, but a 2005 report by academic sources estimates the Muslim population at 63,000.

There is no significant correlation between religious affiliation and ethnicity, politics, or socio-economic status; the society is relatively ethnically and religiously homogeneous. The indigenous Ainu people, who practice an animist faith, are concentrated mainly in Japan’s northern island, Hokkaido. Some immigrants and foreign workers practice religions other than Shintoism, the indigenous religion, or Buddhism.

Section II. Status of Government Respect for Religious Freedom
Legal/Policy Framework

The constitution and other laws and policies protect religious freedom.

According to the ACA, approximately 183,000 religious groups are certified by the central government as well as by prefectural governments as religious groups with corporate status. The government does not require religious groups to register or apply for certification, but certified religious groups receive tax benefits.

The Religious Juridical Persons Law, as amended in response to the 1995 sarin gas attack on Tokyo’s subway system by Aum Shinrikyo, provides the government with some authority to supervise certified religious groups. The law requires certified religious groups to disclose their assets to the government and empowers the government to investigate possible violations of regulations governing for-profit activities. Authorities have the right to suspend a religious group’s for-profit activities if the group violates these regulations.

The government does not observe any religious holidays as national holidays.

Government Practices


There were no reports of abuses of religious freedom in the country.

Following 2011 allegations that the government had collected personal information on Muslims resident in the country, representatives of a Muslim group reported that the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department and the National Police Agency had apparently discontinued the practice.

The government granted temporary humanitarian protective status to Chinese individuals who were Falun Gong (also referred to as Falun Dafa) practitioners. Some of these individuals reported that the Chinese embassy in Tokyo would not renew their Chinese passports due to their faith. The temporary humanitarian status allowed them to remain in the country and to travel overseas using travel documents issued by the Japanese government.

The government continued to refuse refugee status to any of the more than 50 Rohingyas who feared ethnic and religious persecution in Burma. The majority of these individuals had resided in Japan more than five years, and some for more than 15 years. Some reportedly entered the country illegally and were not associated with any formal resettlement program. The government issued temporary stay visas to Rohingyas without refugee status; the visas required frequent renewal. In addition, the temporary status carried some risk of deportation. Representatives of a group promoting Rohingya rights reported that the authorities had detained one individual on temporary status following the rejection of his asylum request.

Section III. Status of Societal Respect for Religious Freedom
セクション III. 宗教の自由に対する社会的配慮状況

There were few reports of societal abuses or discrimination based on religious affiliation, belief, or practice.

宗教、信仰、実践の故の、社会的虐待、差別の報告が少々上がっている。

“Deprogrammers” working with family members reportedly continued to abduct Unification Church (UC) members and members of other minority religious groups. The number of reported cases has declined sharply since the 1990s, but the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Human Rights Without Frontiers International maintained that abductions and deprogramming of UC members continued to occur. Japanese courts rejected some claims for prosecution or restitution in civil court based on the perceived lack of valid evidence of these abductions.

"ディプログラマー" は、家族と協力しながら、統一教会の会員や、他の弱小宗教グループのメンバーの拉致を続けていると報告された。その報告された数は、1990年代以降、激減しているが、非政府組織である「国境なき人権」は、統一教会員に対する拉致とディプログラミングは、継続して行われていると断言した。日本の裁判所は、拉致に関して証拠不十分との理由で、刑事起訴や、民事裁判においては賠償を拒絶してきた。

The UC reported three cases in which church members were abducted during the year, as well as two cases of suspected abduction. According to the church, one abductee was possibly still confined. The other individuals who were abducted and later released were still with the church at year’s end. The UC also asserted that, despite universities’ efforts to improve the situation, universities throughout the country continued to hold “cult prevention” workshops and campaigns urging students to avoid groups affiliated with the church and contributing to a hostile campus environment for Unificationist students. A university president confirmed the existence of anti-cult workshops, but stressed they were not exclusively targeted against the UC. A student filed suit against Saga University for slander and violating religious freedom for statements allegedly disparaging the UC marriage of the student’s parents. In a case filed in July, a former member alleged that the UC concealed its identity during the recruitment process and that the plaintiff lost her well-paying job by joining the UC. The case was pending at year's end.

(注 by Yoshi:この段落は長いので、の日本語訳部分は、適宜段落分け)
統一教会は、報告書年内(*)において、3件の拉致監禁事件と、2件の拉致疑惑があったと報告した。さらに、一人の拉致被害者が、未だに、監禁されている可能性があると報告した。拉致され、のち解放された他の個人(複数)は、年度末時点で、(拉致にも関わらず)教会に留まっていた。 注(*)- 報告書年とは、2012年1月1日〜2012年12月31日

さらに、状況改善のための大学での努力に関わらず、全国の大学で、"カルト対策" の研修やキャンペーンが行われ、学生に、統一教会に関連した団体を避けるよう促し、統一教会学生会員に対し敵意を抱かせるキャンパス環境を造成していると、統一教会は強く主張した。

ある大学の学長は、反カルト研修の存在を認めたが、統一教会をターゲットにしたものではないと主張した。一人の学生が佐賀大学に対し、学生の両親の統一教会の結婚を軽蔑したとされる発言に対し、名誉毀損と、信教の自由侵害で裁判を起こした。

統一教会の元会員が、7月に起こした裁判で、統一教会は、名前を隠して伝道活動を行い、原告は、統一教会に入会したことにより、報酬のいい仕事を失ったと申し立てた。この件は、年度末時点で、係争中である。


While society was largely supportive of the right of Falun Gong practitioners to practice freely, the Chinese embassy in Tokyo reportedly carried out a campaign to persuade Japanese organizations to discriminate against Falun Gong practitioners. Some of the country’s top facilities refused to host Shen Yun Performing Arts, a New York-based performance group associated with the Falun Gong, but other smaller theaters hosted the group.

Significant interfaith efforts continued during the year. The Japanese Association of Religious Organizations, an interfaith NGO, promoted religious culture and interfaith harmony. It sponsored a conference in March to present ways in which people of faith could address issues in areas of the country devastated in the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami. Members of the Islamic Center continued to speak at churches and participated in interfaith peace prayers with Christian, Jewish, Muslim, and Buddhist groups.

Section IV. U.S. Government Policy

The U.S. government closely monitored the status of religious freedom, conducted outreach to minority religious groups and NGOs, and discussed religious freedom with the government.

Embassy representatives met with a variety of faith-based groups and religious leaders. The ambassador and deputy chief of mission both hosted events to highlight the work of NGOs promoting human rights and religious freedom in the country and the region. Embassy officers discussed the Jewish community and its interactions in the local society with Rabbi Antonio Di Gesu. Embassy representatives spoke with UC leaders about religious kidnappings and forced conversion. Embassy officers met with representatives of the Rohingya population who reported on human rights issues in the Burmese state of Rakhine, and the Japanese government’s reluctance to grant refugee status to Rohingyas fearing religious persecution in Burma. Embassy staff met with a representative of the Islamic Center, who provided an overview of the government’s relations with the Muslim community and described interfaith efforts in which his organization was involved. Embassy representatives also met with Falun Gong practitioners.

The ambassador hosted an Iftar dinner to mark the end of Ramadan, attended by 24 chiefs of mission in Tokyo, as well as a number of other embassy employees, Diet members, business leaders, Muslim and other religious leaders, and members of Japanese government agencies.


今夜は、拉致監禁・大学の宗教迫害・統一教会該当部分の日本語訳に精一杯で、解説までは手が回らない。

かつて、国務省の報告書の拉致監禁箇所に頻繁に使われていた「独自には確認できなかった」という表現がなくなっている。昨年の報告書にあった「他のNGOは、それらの報告は、誇張と捏造であると統一教会を非難している。」という文言もなくなっている。こんなことも含めて、解説は後日、書きたい。

参考URL:
★米政府諮問機関:「拉致監禁・強制改宗は甚だしい宗教の自由侵害問題」と認める
http://humanrightslink.seesaa.net/article/358169951.html

★米国国務省:2011年 国際宗教自由報告書
http://humanrightslink.seesaa.net/article/284948839.html

★カテゴリー「アメリカ政府レポート」内の他の記事
http://humanrightslink.seesaa.net/category/10127622-1.html

★意図ある意訳は誤訳である:「やや日刊カルト新聞」を評す
http://humanrightslink.seesaa.net/archives/201105-1.html



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